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澳门皇冠金沙网站该成品将安置无刷伺性格很顽

2019-11-30 12:52

产物简要介绍:

  该产品使用精密行星滚柱丝杆传动技能,内置无刷伺服电机,适用于具有低、中、高等质量必要的移位控制种类。该成品将放置无刷伺性格很顽强在艰难困苦或巨大压力面前不屈电机与滚柱丝杆传动构造融为黄金年代体,伺服电机转子的旋转运动一向通过滚柱丝杠机构转化为推杆的直线运动。该产物可依附顾客的急需开展性情化定战胜务。

  The product uses precision planetary roller screw drive technology, built-in brushless servo motor,applicable to a low,medium and high-level performance motion control system. The product will be built integrated brushless servo motor and ball screw drive structure, servo motor rotor rotary motion into linear motion directly by putting a ball screw mechanism. The product can be customized according to customer demand for personalized service.

出品特色:


1、质量特出,寿命长,维护开支低; 2、负载大,刚性好;

笔记

3、发热量小,速度调整精度高; 4、布局紧凑,外形姣好,应用范围广;

5、安装灵活,易拆卸维修;

长机总体质量参数 OVERALL TECHNICAL DATA

 

from 

基本型号

Model

行程

Range

导程

Extent

最大载荷

Load

重量

Weight

HB IES-130

0-200mm

3mm/5mm/7.5mm

70KN

19KG

HB IES-100

0-200mm

3mm/5mm

16KN

11KG

HB IES-80

0-200mm

3mm/5mm

9KN

6.5KG

手臂的筹划约束:   20磅的最努力和30英寸磅的扭矩

 

种种手部组件总共具备拾伍个自由度,况兼由前臂,多个DOF腕部以致有着地方,速度和力传感器的十贰个DOF手组成。

前臂的底层直径为4英寸,长度大概8英寸,容纳全部十五台电机,

手部配备了四十二个传感器(不满含触觉感测)。// 每种难题都配有嵌入式相对地方传感器,// 每一个电机都配有增量式编码器。// 每种导螺纹钢筋组件以至手腕球关节连杆均被武装为应力传感器以提供力反馈。

千古的手工设计[4,5]选拔了应用复杂滑轮系统或护套的腱索驱动装置,那三种装置在EVA空间情况中央银行使时都会促成深重的毁坏和可相信性难题。为了制止与肌腱有关的主题材料,手使用柔性轴将电力在此以前臂的马达传输到手指。使用微型模块化导螺纹钢筋组件将柔性轴的团团转运动调换为手中的直线运动。结果是一个连贯而不衰的传动系。


英文

from 

Robonaut’s hands set it apart from any previous space manipulator system. These hands can fit into all the same places currently designed for an astronaut’s gloved hand. A key feature of the hand is its palm degree of freedom that allows Robonaut to cup a tool and line up its long axis with the roll degree of freedom of the forearm, thereby, permitting tool use in tight spaces with minimum arm motion. Each hand assembly shown in figure 3 has a total of 14 DOFs, and consists of a forearm, a two DOF wrist, and a twelve DOF hand complete with position, velocity, and force sensors. The forearm, which measures four inches in diameter at its base and is approximately eight inches long, houses all fourteen motors, the motor control and power electronics, and all of the wiring for the hand. An exploded view of this assembly is given in figure 4. Joint travel for the wrist pitch and yaw is designed to meet or exceed that of a human hand in a pressurized glove. Page 2 Figure 4: Forearm Assembly The requirements for interacting with planned space station EVA crew interfaces and tools provided the starting point for the Robonaut Hand design [1]. Both power and dexterous grasps are required for manipulating EVA crew tools. Certain tools require single or multiple finger actuation while being firmly grasped. A maximum force of 20 lbs and torque of 30 in-lbs are required to remove and install EVA orbital replaceable units (ORUs) [2]. The hand itself consists of two sections (figure 5) : a dexterous work set used for manipulation, and a grasping set which allows the hand to maintain a stable grasp while manipulating or actuating a given object. This is an essential feature for tool use [3]. The dexterous set consists of two 3 DOF fingers (index and middle) and a 3 DOF opposable thumb. The grasping set consists of two, single DOF fingers (ring and pinkie) and a palm DOF. All of the fingers are shock mounted into the palm. In order to match the size of an astronaut’s gloved hand, the motors are mounted outside the hand, and mechanical power is transmitted through a flexible drive train. Past hand designs [4,5] have used tendon drives which utilize complex pulley systems or sheathes, both of which pose serious wear and reliability problems when used in the EVA space environment. To avoid the problems associated with tendons, the hand uses flex shafts to transmit power from the motors in the forearm to the fingers. The rotary motion of the flex shafts is converted to linear motion in the hand using small modular leadscrew assemblies. The result is a compact yet rugged drive train. Figure 5: Hand Anatomy Overall the hand is equipped with forty-two sensors (not including tactile sensing). Each joint is equipped with embedded absolute position sensors and each motor is equipped with incremental encoders. Each of the leadscrew assemblies as well as the wrist ball joint links are instrumented as load cells to provide force feedback. In addition to providing standard impedance control, hand force control algorithms take advantage of the non-backdriveable finger drive train to minimize motor power requirements once a desired grasp force is achieved. Hand primitives in the form of pre-planned trajectories are available to minimize operator workload when performing repeated tasks.


译文

from 

罗布onaut的手把它与以前的高空操纵器系统区分开来。这一个双臂能够装入近来为宇宙航银行职员的戴手套而规划的享有同意气风发的地方。手的贰个重大天性是它的手心自由度,使得罗布onaut能够用叁个工具和长轴与前臂的自由度进行排列,进而允许工具在狭小的上空中以眇小的手臂运动应用。

图3中所示的种种手部组件总共具有十四个自由度,况且由前臂,多少个DOF腕部以致独具地点,速度和力传感器的10个DOF手组成。前臂的尾巴部分直径为4英寸,长度大约8英寸,容纳全部十一台电机,电机调节和电力电子装置,以至具有手持线路。图4付出了该器件的表明图。花招节距和偏航的联手路程被设计为在加压手套中达到或领古人口。

图4:前臂装配与布置的空间站EVA乘员接口和工具人机联作的渴求为罗布onaut手的宏图提供了源点[1]。操纵EVA乘员组织工作具必要本领和灵活的抓握。有些工具要求双手或多手指动作,同有的时候候牢牢抓紧。拆卸和装置EVA轨道可替换单元(ORU)要求20磅的最卖力和30英寸磅的扭矩[2]。

手由两局地构成(图5):二个用于操作的灵巧工作组,以至壹个抓握组件,它同意手在决定或运营给定物体时保持安澜的抓握。那是工具使用的基本特征[3]。灵巧套装由三个3 DOF手指(食指和中指)和贰个3 DOF可对折手指组成。抓握组由五个单DOF手指(佚名指和小指)和二个手掌自由度组成。全数的指尖都被设置在手心上。为了合营宇宙航行员戴开端套的手的大小,电机安装在手外,机械引力通过柔性传动系传递。

过去的手工业设计[4,5]行使了选择复杂滑轮系统或护套的腱索驱动装置,那二种装置在EVA空间蒙受中选拔时都会产生深重的损坏和可信性难题。为了防止与肌腱有关的主题素材,手使用柔性轴将电力在那早前臂的电机传输到手指。使用小型模块化导螺丝杆组件将柔性轴的团团转运动转变为手中的直线运动。结果是叁个严密而坚如磐石的传动系。

图5:手部解剖简来说之,手部配备了41个传感器(不包涵触觉感测)。每个接头都配有嵌入式相对地点传感器,各种电机都配有增量式编码器。每一种导螺纹钢筋组件以至手段球关节连杆均被武装为称重传感器以提供力反馈。除了提供正规阻抗调整之外,生龙活虎旦达到梦想的抓力,手力调整算法利用非反向驱入手指驱动系统来节约电机能耗务求。预先规划的轨道情势的手原语可用于在试行重复义务时最大限度地减少操作员的专业量。


Design of the NASA Robonaut Hand R1

C. S. Lovchik, H. A. Aldridge RoboticsTechnology Branch NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas 77058 Iovchik@jsc.nasa.gov, haldridg@ems.jsc.nasa.gov Fax: 281-244-5534

Abstract

The design of a highly anthropomorphichuman scale robot hand for space based operations is described. This fivefinger hand combined with its integrated wrist and forearm has fourteenindependent degrees of freedom. The device approximates very well thekinematics and required strength of an astronaut's hand when operating througha pressurized space suit glove. The mechanisms used to meet these requirementsare explained in detail along with the design philosophy behind them.Integration experiences reveal the challenges associated with obtaining therequired capabilities within the desired size. The initial finger controlstrategy is presented along with examples of obtainable grasps.

汇报了用来空间操作的可观拟人化的人类尺度机器人手的铺排。这三个手指手与其重新组合的手段和前臂相结合,具有二十一个独立的自由度。

该装置在通过加压式太空性格很顽强在荆棘塞途或巨大压力面前不屈手套操作时可特别好地相像于宇宙航银行职员的手的运动学和所需的强度。详细表明了用于知足这个供给的机制及其背后的宏图意见。集成涉世揭发了与收获所需大小内的所需功能有关的挑衅。展现最先手指调节战术甚至可获得的抓握的例子。

 1 Introduction

The requirements for extra-vehicularactivity (EVA) onboard the International Space Station (ISS) are expected to beconsiderable. These maintenance and construction activities are expensive andhazardous. Astronauts must prepare extensively before they may leave therelative safety of the space station, including pre-breathing at space suit airpressure for up to 4 hours. Once outside, the crew person must be extremelycautious to prevent damage to the suit. The Robotic Systems Technology Branchat the NASA Johnson Space Center is currently developing robot systems toreduce the EVA burden on space station crew and also to serve in a rapidresponse capacity. One such system, Robonaut is being designed and built tointerface with external space station systems that only have human interfaces.To this end, the Robonaut hand [1] provides a high degree of anthropomorphicdexterity ensuring a compatibility with many of these interfaces. Many groundbreaking dexterous robot hands [2-7] have been developed over the past twodecades. These devices make it possible for a robot manipulator to grasp andmanipulate objects that are not designed to be robotically M. A. DiftlerAutomation and Robotics Department Lockheed Martin Houston, Texas 77058 diftler@jsc.nasa.gov Fax: 281-244-5534 compatible. While several grippers [8-12] havebeen designed for space use and some even tested in space [8,9,11], nodexterous robotic hand has been flown in EVA conditions. The Robonaut Hand isone of several hands [13,14] under development for space EVA use and is closestin size and capability to a suited astronaut's hand.

预测国际空间站(ISS)上的车外活动(EVA)需求卓绝可观。那一个保卫安全定和煦建设活动是昂贵且危险的。宇宙航行员必需在也许离开空间站的相持安全早先行行布满的备选,蕴含预先呼吸太空服空气压力长达4钟头。后生可畏旦在窗外,机组职员必须十三分严格,防止守损坏宇宙航行服。美利坚合众国国家航空宇航局Johnson航天大旨的机器人系统手艺处方今正在开荒机器人系统,以减少空间站人士的EVA负责,而且服务于快捷反应本领。二个如此的系统,罗布onaut正在规划和建筑,以便与唯有人机界面包车型客车外表空间站系统接口。为此,罗布onaut手[1]提供了中度的举例灵巧性,以管教与好些个这一个接口的宽容性。在过去的七十年中,已经开辟出过多破纪录的灵敏机器人手[2-7]。那些设备使得机器人垄断器能够抓住和调控未被规划为机器人的物体宽容。就算有几个夹具[8-12]设计用来空间应用,某个以致在高空中举办了测量检验[8,9,11],但未有灵巧的机器人手在EVA条件下飞行。 Robonaut手是空间EVA使用中正在开拓的两只手之风流浪漫[13,14],它的尺寸和力量最临近契合宇航员的手。

 2 Design and Control Philosophy

The requirements for interacting withplanned space station EVA crew interfaces and tools provided the starting pointfor the Robonaut Hand design [1]. Both power (enveloping) and dexterous grasps(finger tip) are required for manipulating EVA crew tools. Certain toolsrequire single or multiple finger actuation while being firmly grasped. Amaximum force of 20 lbs. and torque of 30 in-lbs are required to remove andinstall EVA orbital replaceable units (ORUs) [15]. All EVA tools and ORUs mustbe retained in the event of a power loss. It is possible to either buildinterfaces that will be both robotically and EVA compatible or build a seriesof robot tools to interact with EVA crew interfaces and tools. However, bothapproaches are extremely costly and will of course add to a set of spacestation tools and interfaces that are already planned to be quite extensive.The Robonaut design will make all EVA crew interfaces and tools roboticallycompatible by making the robot's hand EVA compatible. EVA compatibility isdesigned into the hand by reproducing, as closely.as possible, the size,kinematics, and strength of the space suited astronaut hand and wrist. Thenumber of fingers and the joint travel reproduce the workspace for apressurized suit glove. The Robonaut Hand reproduces many of the necessarygrasps needed for interacting with EVA interfaces. Staying within this sizeenvelope guarantees that the Robonaut Hand will be able to fit into all therequired places. Joint travel for the wrist pitch and yaw is designed to meetor exceed the human hand in a pressurized glove. The hand and wrist parts are  sizedto reproduce the necessary strength to meet maximum EVA crew requirements.Figure1: Robonaut Hand Control system design for a dexterous robot handmanipulating a variety of tools has unique problems. The majority of theliterature available, summarized in [2,16], pertains to dexterous manipulation.This literature concentrates on using three dexterous fingers to obtain forceclosure and manipulate an object using only fingertip contact. While useful,this type of manipulation does not lend itself to tool use. Most EVA tools arebest used in an enveloping grasp. Two enveloping grasp types, tool and power,must be supported by the tool-using hand in addition to the dexterous grasp.Although literature is available on enveloping grasps [17], it is not asadvanced as the dexterous literature. The main complication involvesdetermining and controlling the forces at the many contact areas involved in anenveloping grasp. While work continues on automating enveloping grasps, a tele-operationcontrol strategy has been adopted for the Robonaut hand. This method ofoperation was proven with the NASA DART/FITT system [18]. The DART/FITT systemutilizes Cyber glove® virtual reality gloves, worn by the operator, to controlStanford/YPL hands to successfully perform space relevant tasks. 2.1 SpaceCompatibility EVA space compatibility separates the Robonaut Hand from manyothers. All component materials meetoutgassing restrictions to prevent contamination that couldinterfere with other space systems. Parts made of different materials aretoleranced to perform acceptably under the extreme temperature variationsexperienced in EVA conditions. Brushless motors are used to ensure long life ina vacuum. All parts are designed to use proven space lubricants.

与安排的空间站EVA乘员接口和工具交互作用的渴求为罗布onaut手设计须要提供了起点[1]。

操纵EVA乘职员和工人具需求技巧(包络)和灵活的抓握(指尖)。有些工具要求单臂或多手指动作,同有的时候候牢牢吸引。 20磅的最大力量。并索要30英寸磅的扭矩来拆除和安装EVA轨道可更改单元(ORU)[15]。

持有EVA工具和ORU必需在发生断电时保留。能够构建宽容机器人和EVA的接口,可能构建大器晚成密密层层机器人工具来与EVA机组接口和工具进行相互。可是,那三种方法都以特高昂的,并且当然会扩充后生可畏套空间站工具和接口,这一个工具和接口已经陈设得一定不以为奇。 罗布onaut设计将使机器人的手EVA宽容,进而使具有EVA机组人机分界面和工具机器人兼容。通过尽恐怕地再现符合宇航员手和手法的长空的尺码,运动学和强度,将EVA包容性设计在手中。手指和协助举行路程的数据再度现身了加压套装手套的专门的工作空间。 罗布onaut手掌重现了与EVA分界面人机联作所需的好些个少不了手段。保持在此个尺寸范围内保证罗布onaut手将能够适应全数须求的地点。手段节距和偏航的联手路程被设计为在加压手套中达成或超过人口。手部和腕部的尺码能够复出要求的强度,以满足最大的EVA机组职员的供给。

图1:罗布onaut手控系统设计灵巧的机器人手操纵各样工具具备特别的难点。在[2,16]中总括的大部文献都关系到灵巧的支配。这一个文献集中于选取多个灵巧手指来获取力闭合併仅使用手指接触来支配物体。尽管有用,但这种类型的操作不适用于工具使用。大相当多EVA工具最切合用来包围式抓握。除了灵巧的抓握之外,还必须使用工具用手来帮忙二种包络抓握类型,工具和力量。固然文献可用以包络抓握[17],但它并不像灵巧手那样先进。重要的错综复杂包含分明和决定关系包络抓握的多数接触区域的力。即便自动化包络抓握的干活仍在持续,但罗布onaut手已采取远程操作调整战略。美利坚合资国国家航空宇航局DART / BoraT系统验证了这种操作方法[18]。 DART / 卡罗拉T系统接收由操作员佩戴的Cyber​​glove®设想现实手套来支配Stanford / YPL手以成功进行空间相关任务。

 2.1空中宽容性EVA空间包容性将罗布onaut手与其余许多少人分手。全体组件材质均满意除气节制,以幸免恐怕困扰其他空间类其他传染。不同材质制作而成的组件在EVA条件下经受极端温度变化时有所可选择的性质。无刷电机用于确认保障真空中的长寿命。全体零部件都规划为利用经过认证的上空光滑剂。

 3 Design

The Robonaut Hand (figure 1) has a total offourteen degrees of freedom. It consists of a forearm which houses the motorsand drive electronics, a two degree of freedom wrist, and a five finger, twelvedegree of freedom hand. The forearm, which measures four inches in diameter atits base and is approximately eight inches long, houses all fourteen motors, 12separate circuit boards, and all of the wiring for the hand. Y= Figure 2: Handcomponents The hand itself is broken down into two sections (figure 2): adexterous work set which is used for manipulation, and a grasping set whichallows the hand to maintain a stable grasp while manipulating or actuating agiven object. This is an essential feature for tool use [13]. The dexterous setconsists of two three degree of freedom fingers (pointer and index) and a threedegree of freedom opposable thumb. The grasping set consists of two, one degreeof freedom fingers (ring and pinkie) and a palm degree of freedom. All of thefingers are shock mounted into the palm (figure 2). In order to match the sizeof an astronaut's gloved hand, the motors are mounted outside the hand, andmechanical power is transmitted through a flexible drive train. Past handdesigns [2,3] have used tendon drives which utilize complex pulley systems orsheathes, both of which pose serious wear and reliability problems when used inthe EVA space environment. To avoid the problems associated with tendons, thehand uses flex shafts to transmit power from the motors in the forearm to the fingers. The rotary motionof the flex shafts is converted to linear motion in the hand using smallmodular leadscre was semblies. The result is acompact yet rugged drive train.Over all the hand is equipped with forty-three sensors not including tactilesensing. Each joint is equipped with embedded absolute position sensors andeach motor is  equipped with incrementalencoders. Each of the leadscrew assemblies as well as the wristball joint linksare instrumented as load cells to provide force feedback.

3设计

罗布onaut手(图1)总共有14个自由度。

它由具有电机和驱动电子装置的膀子,七个自由度的一手和

二个五指,十九自由度的手组成。

前臂的尾部直径为4英寸,长度约8英寸,可容纳全部十五个电机,10个独立电路板以及独具手部布线。

澳门皇冠金沙网站,手部组件手部自身分为两局地。二个用于操作的灵巧专门的职业组(食指和中指),甚至叁个抓握组(无名氏指和小指),它同意手在操作或运维给准时保持平稳的抓握目标。那是工具使用的基本特征[13]。

灵巧组由七个三自由度手指(食指和中指)和一个三度自由争持拇指组成。抓握组由多少个,叁个自由度指(无名指和小指)和贰个手掌自由度组成。全体的手指都棉被服装置在掌心上(图2)。

为了同盟宇宙航银行人士戴最先套的手的朗朗上口,电机安装在手外,机械重力通过柔性传动系传递。过去的手工业设计[2,3]行使了选择复杂滑轮系统或护套的腱索驱动装置,这两种装置在EVA空间情况中使用时都会以致深重的磨损和可相信性难题。为了幸免与肌腱有关的主题素材,手使用柔性轴将电力以前臂的电机传输到手指。柔性轴的团团转运动机原因而微型模块化导丝调换来手中的线性运动。结果是紧密而安如泰山的传动系。

不无的手都安顿了四十二个(不满含触觉)传感器。每一种接头都配有嵌入式相对地点传感器,每一个电机都配有增量式编码器。各样导螺丝杆组件以致手腕关节连杆均被武装为称重传感器以提供力反馈。

3.1

Finger Drive Train

Figure 3: Finger leadscrew assembly Thefinger drive consists of a brushless DC motor equipped with an encoder and a 14to 1 planetary gear head. Coupled to the motors are stainless steel highflexibility flex shafts. The flex shafts are kept short in order to minimizevibration and protected by a sheath consisting of an open spring covered withTeflon. At the distal end of the flex shaft is a small modular leadscrewassembly (figure 3). This assembly converts the rotary motion of the flex shaftto linear motion. The assembly includes: a leadscrew which has a flex shaftconnection and bearing seats cut into it, a shell which is designed to act as aload cell, support bearings, a nut with rails that mate with the shell (inorder to eliminate off axis loads), and a short cable length which attaches tothe nut. The strain gages are mounted on the flats of the shell indicated infigure 3. The top of the leadscrew assemblies are clamped into the palm of thehand to allow the shell to stretch or compress under load, thereby giving adirect reading of force acting on the fingers. Earlier models _of the assemblycontained an integral reflective encoder cut into the leadscrew. This configurationworked well but was eliminated from the hand in order to minimize the wiring inthe hand.

Figure 4: Dexterous finger

3.1指尖传动系统

图3:手指引螺丝杆组件

手指驱动器包涵

         三个布署编码器和

         14:1行星齿轮头的无刷直流发动机。

与电动机耦合的是不锈钢高柔性软轴。

         柔性轴保持相当短以裁减震荡,

         并通过由聚四氟芳香烃覆盖的出口弹簧组成的护套进行维护。

在柔性轴的远端是二个Mini模块化螺纹钢筋组件(图3)。该器件将柔性轴的转动运动转变为直线运动。该零零器件包蕴:

         二个丝杠,它抱有多个柔性轴连接和切入在这之中的轴承座,

         一个兼顾作为伊斯梅鹿辄夫传感器的外壳,支撑轴承,

         叁个包蕴与外壳同盟的导轨的螺母(为了肃清轴负载)以至三回九转到螺母上的短丝缆长度。     范晓冬传感器安装在图3所示的壳体的平面上。将丝杠组件的最上部夹紧在手心中,以允许壳体在负载下张开或降低,从而一直读取效用于手指。

         组件的较早型号还含有切入导螺丝杆的全体式反射编码器。这种安插运转优秀,但新兴从手中删除,以尽量减少手中的接线。

图4:灵巧的指尖

3.2

Dexterous Fingers

 Thethree degree of freedom dexterous fingers (figure 4) include the finger mount,a yoke, two proximal finger segment half shells, a decoupling link assembly, amid finger segment, a distal finger segment, two connecting links, and springsto eliminate backlash (not shown in figure). Figure 5 Finger base cam The basejoint of the finger has two degrees of freedom: yaw (+ /- 25 degrees) and pitch(I00 degrees). These motions are provided by two leadscrew assemblies that workin a differential manner. The short cables that extend from the leadscrewassemblies attach into the cammed grooves in the proximal finger segments halfshells (figure 5). The use of cables eliminates a significant number of jointsthat would otherwise be needed to handle the two degree of freedom base joint.The cammed grooves control the bend radius of the connecting cables from theleadscrew assemblies (keeping it larger to avoid stressing the cables andallowing oversized cables to be used). The grooves also allow a nearly constantlever arm to be maintained throughout the full range of finger motion. Becausethe connecting cables are kept short (approximately I inch) and their bendradius is controlled (allowing the cables to be relatively large in diameter(.07 inches)), the cables act like stiff rods in the working direction (closingtoward the palm) and like springs in the opposite direction. In other words,the ratio of the cable length to its

diameter is such that the cables are stiff enough to push the finger openbut if the finger contacts or impacts anobject the cables will buckle, allowing the finger to collapse out of the way.

 Figure 6: Decoupling link The second and thirdjoints of the dexterous fingers are directly linked so that they close withequal angles. These joints are driven by a separate leadscrew assembly througha decoupling linkage (figure 6). The short cable on the leadscrew assembly isattached to the pivoting cable termination in the decoupling link. The flex inthe cable allows the actuation to pass across the two degree of freedom basejoint, without the need for complex mechanisms. The linkage is designed so thatthe arc length of the cable is nearly constant regardless of the position ofthe base joint (compare arc A to arc B in figure 6). This makes the motion ofdistal joints approximately independent of the base joint. figure 2 has aproximal and distal segment and is similar in design to the dexterous fingersbut has significantly more yaw travel and a hyper extended pitch. The thumb isalso mounted to the palm at such an angle that the increase in range of motionresults in a reasonable emulation of human thumb motion. This type of mountingenables the hand to perform grasps that are not possible with the common practiceof mounting the thumb directly opposed to the fingers [2,3,14]. The thumb basejoint has 70 degrees of yaw and 110 degrees of pitch. The distal joint has 80degrees of pitch. Linkages Finger Mount Figure 7:Grasping Finger The actuationof the base joint is the same as the dexterous fingers with the exception thatcammed detents have been added to keep the bend radius of the cable large atthe extreme yaw angles. The distal segment of the thumb is driven through adecoupling linkage in a manner similar to that of the manipulating fingers. Theextended yaw travel of the thumb base makes complete distal mechanicaldecoupling difficult. Instead the joints are decoupled in software.

3.2心闲手敏的手指头

 多少个自由度的灵巧手指(图4)富含

         手指支架,

         轭,

         四个近侧手指段半壳,

         解耦连杆组件,

         中指段,

         远侧手指段,

         多少个连续连杆和弹簧以消除间隙(未在图中显示)。

图5手指底座凸轮

手指的底盘接头具备五个自由度:偏航(+ / -

25度)和俯仰(I00度)。那一个活动由七个以不一致方法职业的导螺纹钢筋组件提供。从螺丝杆组件延伸的短丝缆连接到近端指状部分半壳中的凸轮槽中(图5)。使用丝缆清除了拍卖多少个自由度底部接头所需的大气明亮。凸轮槽用于调控连接丝缆从导螺丝杆组件的波折半径(保持相当大以幸免对丝缆施压并同意利用过大的丝缆)。凹槽还允许在总体手指运动范围内维持大致恒定的杠杆臂。由于接二连三丝缆保持非常短(大致1英寸)并且其卷曲半径受到调控(允许丝缆的直径相对一点都不小(0.07英寸)),由此丝缆在做被害人旋律上像硬棒雷同起效果(相近手掌)和像相反方向的弹簧同样。换句话说,丝缆长度与其直径的比例使得

         丝缆丰富坚硬以将手指推开,

         但借使手指接触或撞击物体,则丝缆会盘曲,使手指塌陷。

 图6:解耦链接

利落手指的第二和第多个难题直接相接,以便它们以约等于的角度关闭。这几个接头由三个单身的导螺丝杆组件通过七个分离联合浮动装置驱动(图6)。丝杠组件上的短丝缆连接到去耦链路中的枢轴丝缆终端。丝缆中的卷曲允许致动穿过多个自由度的基部接头,而没有需求复杂的单位。连杆的宏图使得丝缆的弧长度大致恒定,不管基座接头的职责怎么(比较图6中的弧A与弧B)。那使得远端关节的运动大致独立于基部关节。图2负有近端和远端段,並且在规划上好像于灵巧指状物,但具备无可顶牛更加的多的偏航行路线程和细长的间距。拇指也以那样的角度安装在掌心上,使得运动范围的加码引致人类拇指活动的创立仿真。这种设置情势得以使手推行抓握,那与平日的将拇指直接放在手指对面的老规矩相比是不或许的[2,3,14]。拇指基座关节具有70度偏航和110度俯仰。远端关节有80度的间距。连杆手指安装图7:抓住手指基座关节的动作与灵巧的指头相仿,但增加了凸轮式制动器以保障丝缆的卷曲半径在巨大偏航角度时十分的大。拇指的远侧部分以看似于决定手指的方式被驱动通过抽离联合浮动装置。拇指基座的恢弘偏航行路线程使完全远端机械解耦困难。相反,关节在软件中解耦。

3.5

Palm

3.3

Grasping Fingers

The grasping fingers have three pitchjoints each with 90 degrees of travel. The fingers are actuated by oneleadscrew assembly and use the same cam groove (figure 5) in the proximalfinger segment half shell as with the manipulating fingers. The 7-bar fingerlinkage is similar to that of the dexterous fingers except that the decouplinglink is removed and the linkage ties to the finger mount (figure 7). In thisconfiguration each joint of the finger closes down with approximately equalangles. An alternative configuration of the finger that is currently beingevaluated replaces the distal link with a stiff limited travel spring to allowthe finger to better conform while grasping an object.

3.5手掌

3.3抓握手指

抓握手指有四个俯仰关节,各类难题都有90度的路途。手指由叁个导螺纹钢筋组件致动,並且在操作指状物的近端手指段半壳中运用相似的凸轮槽(图5)。 7-bar指形连杆与灵巧指形的指形连杆相通,不相同的地方在于去耦连杆被拆卸何况连杆与手指支架连接(图7)。在这里种布置中,手指的各种难题都以差相当少也就是的角度关闭。当前正值评估的手指头的代替配置用刚性有限路程弹簧代替远侧连杆,以允许手指在引发物体时更加好地顺应。

 3.4 Thumb

The thumb is key to obtaining many of thegrasps required for interfacing with EVA tools. The thumb shown in The palmmechanism (figure 8) provides a mount for the two grasping fingers and acupping motion that enhances stability for tool grasps. This allows the hand tograsp an object in a manner that aligns the tool's axis with the forearm rollaxis. This is essential for the use of many common tools, like screwdrivers.The mechanism includes two pivoting metacarpals, a common shaft, and twotorsion springs. The grasping fingers and their leadscrew assemblies mount intothe metacarpals. The metacarpals are attached to the palm on a common shaft.The first torsion spring is placed between the two metacarpals providing a pivotingforce between the two. The second torsion spring is placed between the secondmetacarpal and the palm, forcing both of the metacarpals back against the palm.The actuating leadscrew assembly mounts into the palm and the short cableattaches to the cable termination on the first metacarpal. The torsion springsare sized such that as the leadscrew assembly pulls down the first metacarpal, thesecond metacarpal folows a troughly half the angle of the first. In this waythe palm is able to cup in a way similar to that of the human hand without thefingers colliding.

Figure 9 Wrist mechanism

 COMMON SHAFT PALM CASTING The wrist isactuated in a differential manner through two linear actuators (figure 9). Thelinear actuators consist of a slider riding in recirculating ball tracks and acustom, hollow shaft brushless DC motor with an integral ballscrew. Theactuators attach to the palm through ball joint links, which are mounted in thepre-loaded ball sockets. Figure 8: Palm mechanism The fingers are mounted tothe palm at slight angles to each other as opposed to the common practice ofmounting them parallel to each other• This mounting allows the fingers to closetogether similar to a human hand. To further improve the reliability andruggedness of the hand, all of the fingers are mounted on shock loaders. Thisallows them to take very high impacts without incurring damage.

3.4拇指

拇指是赢得广大与EVA工具接口所需的拉手的尤为重要。手掌机构(图8)中展现的拇指为多少个抓手提供了叁个支架,并提供了三个拔??动作,加强了工具抓握的安宁。那允许手以使工具的轴线与前臂挥舞轴线对齐的措施吸引物体。那对众多常用工具(如改锥)的使用特别首要。该机关包涵五个枢转掌骨,一个意气风发并的轴和多个扭力弹簧。抓手指和他们的导螺丝杆组件安装到掌骨。掌骨连接在相仿根轴上的掌心上。第三个扭力弹簧放置在三个掌骨之间,在两个之间提供枢转力。第一个扭力弹簧放置在其次掌骨和手掌之间,反逼两掌骨靠在掌心上。致动导螺丝杆组件安装在手掌中,短丝缆连接到第风度翩翩掌骨上的丝缆终端。扭力弹簧的尺寸使妥善导螺丝杆组件拉下第风流罗曼蒂克掌骨时,第二掌骨以二分一的角度折叠第生机勃勃掌骨。通过这种格局,手掌能够以与人口相像的不二等秘书技开展杯盏的揉搓而不会发新手指碰撞。

图9手腕机构

 普通轴手掌铸造花招通过多个线性施行器以分化措施驱动(图9)。线性推行器由贰个滑块和八个分包一个总体滚珠丝杠的定制空心轴无刷直流动机组成。奉行器通过安装在事情发生前加载的球座中的球节连杆连接到手心。图8:手掌机制手指相互以微小的角度安装在手心上,那与将手指安装在相互平行的相似做法反而。•这种装置使手指能够像人手相仿临近在一同。为了进一层进步手的可信赖性和稳定性,全部手指都安装在减震垫上。那使他们力所能致在不引起损坏的处境下收受超高的影响。

 3.6 Wrist/Forearm

 Design The wrist (figure 9) provides anunconstrained pass through to maximize the bend radii for the finger flexshafts while approximating the wrist pitch and yaw travel of a pressurizedastronaut glove. Total travel is +/- 70 degrees of pitch and +/- 30 degrees ofyaw. The two axes intersect with each other and the centerline of the forearmroll axis. When connected with the Robonaut Arm [19], these three axes combineat the center of the wrist cuff yielding an efficient kinematic solution. Thecuff is mounted to the forearm through shock loaders for added safety. Figure10: Forearm The forearm is configured as a ribbed shell with six cover plates.Packaging all the required equipment in an EVA forearm size volume is achallenging task. The six cover plates are skewed at a variety of angles andkeyed mounting tabs are used to minimize forearm surface area. Mounted on twoof the cover plates are the wrist linear actuators, which fit into the forearmsymmetrically to maintain efficient kinematics. The other four cover plateprovides mounts for clusters of three finger motors (Figure 10). Symmetry isnot required here since the flex shafts easily bend to accommodate odd angles.The cover plates are also designed to act as heat sinks. Along with the motors,custom hybrid motor driver chips are mounted to the cover plates.

3.6腕/前臂

 设计手腕(图9)提供了无约束的通过,以最大化手指柔性轴的屈曲半径,同有时候相符加压宇宙航银行人士手套的花招节距和偏航行路线程。总路程为+/- 70度的俯仰和+/- 30度的偏航。这两条轴线互相交叉,并与前臂滚动轴的大旨线相交。当与罗布onaut Arm [19]一而再再而三时,那八个轴线结合在花招袖口的基本,发生飞跃的运动学应用方案。袖套通过减震器安装在前臂上,以追加安全性。

图10:前臂前臂配置为带两个盖板的肋状外壳。将具备必要的装置包装在EVA前臂尺寸体积中是生龙活虎项具有挑衅性的天职。多少个盖板以各个角度倾斜,并且利用键控安装接片来使前臂表面面积最小化。腕部直线实践器安装在多少个盖板上,对称地定位在前臂上以维持高效的运动。此外多少个盖板为四个手指马达组提供支架(图10)。这里无需对称,因为柔性轴轻松盘曲以适应奇异的角度。盖板也安排用作散热器。随着电机,定制混合电机驱动器微电路安装在盖板上。

4

Integration Challenges

As might be expected, many integrationchallenges arose during hand prototyping, assembly and initial testing. Some ofthe issues and current resolutions follow. Many of the parts in the hand useextremely complex geometry to minimize the part count and reduce the size ofthe hand. Fabrication of these parts was made possible by casting them inaluminum directly from stereo lithography models. This process yieldsrelatively high accuracy parts at a minimal cost. The best example of this isthe palm, which has a complex shape, and over 50 holes in it, few of which areorthogonal to each other. Finger joint control is achieved through antagonisticcable pairs for the yaw joints and pre-load springs for the pitch joints.Initially, single compression springs connected through ball links to the frontof the dexterous fingers applied insufficient moment to the base joints at thefull open position. Double tension springs connected to the backs of thefingers improved pre-loading over more of the joint range. However, desiredpre-loading in the fully open position resulted in high forces during closing.Work on establishing the optimal pre-load and making the preload forces linearover the full range is under way. The finger cables have presented bothmechanical mounting and mathematical challenges. The dexterous fingers usesingle mounting screws to hold the cables in place while avoiding cable pinch.This configuration allows the cables to flex during finger motion and yields areasonably constant lever arm. However assembly with a single screw isdifficult especially when evaluating different cable diameters. The thumb usesa more secure lock that includes a plate with a protrusion that securely pressesdown on the cable in its channel. The trade between these two techniques iscontinuing. Similar cable attachment devices are also evolving for the otherfinger joints. The cable flexibility makes closed form kinematics difficult.The bend of the cable at the mounting points as the finger moves is not easy tomodel accurately. Any closed form model requires simplifying assumptionsregarding cable bending and moving contact with the finger cams. A simplersolution that captures all the relevant data employs multi-dimensional datamaps that are empirically obtained off-line. With a sufficiently highresolution these maps provide accurate forward and inverse kinematics data. Thewrist design (figure 9) evolved from a complex multibar mechanism to a simplertwo-dimensional slider crank hook joint. Initially curved ball links connectedthe sliders to the palm with cams that rotated the links to avoid the wristcuff during pitch motion. After wrist cuff and palm redesign, the presentstraight ball links were achieved. The finger leadscrews are non-back drivableand in an enveloping grasp ensure positive capture in the event of a powerfailure. If power can not be restored in a timely fashion, it may be necessaryfor the other Robonaut hand [19] or for an EVA crew person to manually open thehand. An early hand design incorporated a simple back out ring that throughfriction wheels engaged each finger drive train and slowly opened each fingerjoint. While this works well in the event of a power failure, experiments withthe coreless brushless DC motors revealed a problem when a motor fails due tooverheating. The motor winding insulation heats up, expands and seizes themotor, preventing back-driving. A new contingency technique for opening thehand that will accommodate both motor seizing and power loss is beinginvestigated.

4整合挑衅

正如所料,在手工业原型,装配和始发测验中冒出了过多归总挑衅。在那之中部分主题材料和方今的解决方案如下。手中的浩大构件都利用特别扑朔迷离的几何样子,以尽量裁减零构件数量并收缩手的尺码。那么些零部件的炮制能够经过一向从立体光刻模型将它们铸造在铝中来兑现。那几个进度以细小的开支发生对峙高精度的零器件。当中最佳的例证就是手掌,形状复杂,有50几个洞,此中少之甚少有相互正交的。

手指关节调控是因而用于偏航关节的水火不相容丝缆对和用于俯仰关节的预加载弹簧达成的。最早,通过球形连杆连接收灵巧指状物的前部的单个压缩弹簧在全开地点向基部关节施加不足的力矩。连接到手指背部的双郭亮弹簧修正了更加的多关节范围的预加载。然则,在完全打开地方期待的预加载在关闭时期形成较高的力。正在扩充确立最棒预加载和使预加载力在全路范围内线性化的专门的学问。指状丝缆提议了教条安装和数学挑衅。灵巧的手指头使用单个安装螺钉将丝缆固定到位,同一时候幸免丝缆夹紧。这种构造允许丝缆在指尖运动时期屈曲并爆发合理稳固的杠杆臂。但是,在评估分化的丝缆直径时,使用单个螺丝进行组装很狼狈。拇支使用更安全的锁,在那之中囊括一块带有卓绝部分的生硬,该平板可牢固地按压其通道中的丝缆。那三种本领之间的交易正在持续。雷同的丝缆连接装置也在为其余手指关节蜕变。丝缆的灵活性使密封式运动学变得艰巨。手指运动时设置点处的丝缆弯曲不易正确建立模型。任何密闭模型都亟需简化有关丝缆盘曲和与手指凸轮接触的只要。捕获全体有关数据的更简明的消除方案接纳凭涉世在线离线获取的多维数据图。具有丰硕高的分辨率,那一个地图提供准确的正向和反向运动学数据。

花招设计(图9)从繁杂的多杆机构蜕变为更简便的二维滑块曲柄吊钩接头。最早盘曲的球形连杆将滑块连接到手心,并包蕴凸轮,以便在俯仰运动时期旋转连杆以规避腕带。在再一次规划花招袖口和手掌之后,完结了日前的直线球链接。手辅导向螺丝杆不可逆向驱动(应该代表没电时不可能动,有电时能够双向动),并且在包络抓握中可保障在发生电源故障时落到实处正向捕捉。假设不能够及时还原重力,或许供给其余罗布onaut手[19]还是EVA机组人士手动打开手。

早期的手部设计结合了三个容易易行的退出环,通过摩擦轮啮合种种手指传动系,并缓缓张开各样手指关节。尽管这种景色在发生电源故障时运维卓越,但无芯无刷直流动机的实验揭橥了当电机由于过热而产生故障时的标题。电机绕组绝缘加热,扩展并占用电机,幸免反向驱动。正在钻探豆蔻梢头种新的救急技艺,用于展开将容纳马塔林死和功率损失的手。

5

Initial Finger Control Design and Test

Before any operation can occur, basicposition control of the Robonaut hand joints must be developed. Depending onthe joint, finger joints are controlled either by a single motor or anantagonistic pair of motors. Each of these motors is attached to the fingerdrive train assembly shown in figure 3. A simple PD controller is used toperform motor position control tests. When the finger joint is unloaded,position control of the motor drive system is simple. When the finger isloaded, two mechanical effects influence the drive system dynamics. The flexshaft, which connects the motor to the lead screw, winds up and acts as atorsional spring. Although adding an extra system dynamic, the high ratio ofthe lead screw sufficiently masks the position error caused by the state of theflex shaft for teleoperated control. The second effect during loading is theincreased frictional force in the lead screw. The non-backdrivable nature ofthe motor drive system effectively decouples the motor from the applied force.Therefore, during joint loading, the motor sees the increasing torque requiredto turn the lead screw. The motor is capable of supplying the torque requiredto turn the lead screw during normal loading. However, thermal constraintslimit the motor's endurance at high torque. To accommodate this constraint, thecontroller incorporates force feedback from the strain gauges installed on thelead screw shell. The controller utilizes the non-back drivability of the motordrive system and properly turns down motor output torque once a desired forceis attained. During a grasp, a command to move in a direction that willincrease the force beyond the desired level is ignored. If the forced rops offor a command in a direction that will relieve the force is issued, the motor revertsto normal position control operation. This control strategy successfully lowersmotor heating to acceptable levels and reduces power consumption. To perform jointcontrol, the kinematics, which relates motor output joint output, must be determined. As statedearlier, due to varying cable interactions a closed form kinematics algorithm isnot tractable. Once the finger joint hall-effect based position sensors arecalibrated using are solver, a semi-autonomous kinematic calibration procedure forboth forward and inverse kinematics is used to build look-up tables. Variationsbetween kinematics and hall-effect sensor outputs during operation are seen inregions where the pre-loading springs are not effective. Designs using differentspring strategies are underdevelopment to resolve this problem. To enhance positioningaccuracy, a closed loop finger joint position controller employing hall-effect sensorposition feedback is used as part of this kinematic calibration procedure. ableto successfully manipulate many EVA tool.

5开始手指调整安插和测验

在其余操作发生在此之前,必需开支罗布onaut手关节的骨干地点调整。根据难点的不等,手指关节能够由单个电机或绝没错电机调节。各个电机都总是到图3所示的指头传动系组件上。二个简约的PD调节器用于推行电飞机地方置调节测量检验。

当手指关节卸载时,电机驱动系统的位置调控很简单。

当手指装入时,多个机械效应会潜移暗化驱动系统的重力。

    将电机连选用丝杠的柔性轴卷起并作为扭转弹簧。即便扩张了叁个额外的种类动态,但高比率的丝杠足以覆盖由遥控操作的柔性轴状态引起的地点截断误差。

加载进度中的第三个影响是充实了丝杠的摩擦力。电机驱动系统的不可逆性质使电机与施加的力有效地抽离。由此,在标准加载期间,电机缘见到转动丝杠所需的充实的扭矩。电机能够在常规负载时提供转动丝杠所需的扭矩。但是,热限定会节制电机在高转矩时的耐久性。为了适应那生龙活虎范围,调控器将安装在导螺纹钢筋壳体上的应变仪的力反馈结合起来。调整器接受电机驱动系统的无四驱动技艺,并在高达所需的力后科学地降落电机输出扭矩。在抓取过程中,将会顺着一个方向移动的通令将被忽视,该方向会将力增到超过所需的程度。假诺强制断电或在叁个得以释放力的动向爆发三个限令,电机将恢复生机平常的岗位调整操作。该调控战略成功地将电机加热减低到可承当的水准并收缩耗能。

为了进行一齐决定,必需明确与外燃机输出联合输出有关的移动特征。如前所述,由于丝缆人机联作成效的两样,封闭情势的运动学算法不易管理。生龙活虎旦基于手指关节霍尔效应的岗位传感器使用解算器举行校准,则选取用刘頔向和反向运动学的活动运动高校准程序来创设查找表。运维时期霍尔传感器输出与霍尔效应传感器输出之间的变迁可以知道于预加载弹簧无效的区域。使用分化弹簧战术的宏图不足以消除这一个难点。为进步定位精度,选取霍尔效应传感器位置反馈的闭环手指关节地方调整器作为此运动学园准程序的后生可畏都部队分。能够成功调节相当多EVA工具。

SeveralexampletoolmanipulationsusingtheRobonauthand underteleoperatedcontrolareshowninfigures11and12. Figure11:ExamplesoftheRobonaut Handusingenvelopingpowergraspstoholdtools An importantsafetyfeatureof thehand,itsabilityto passivelycloseinresponsetoacontactonthebackof thefingers,causesproblemsfor closedloopjoint controlduringnormaloperation.Furtherrefinementof the kinematiccalibrationandthestraingaugeforcesensorsirequiredtoreliablydeterminewhenthefingersarebeing uncontrollablycosed.Oncethisinformation, alongwithabettermodelforthedrivetraindynamicsisavailable,thejointcontrollercanbemodifiedtodistinguishteloaded fromthenormaloperatingmode.Althoughconsiderableworkstillneedstobedone,joint controlsatisfactoryforteleoperatedcontrolof thehand hasbeenattained. For initial tests,the handwascontrolledin joint modefrominputsderivedfromtheCyberglove®wornbytheoperator.TheCybergloveuses bendsensors,whichareinterpretedbytheCyberglove electronicstodeterminethepositionof 18actionsof theoperator'shand. Someof theseactionsareabsolute positionsoffingerjointswhileotherarerelativemotions betweenjoints.Thechallengeisdevelopingamapping betweenthe 18 absoluteandrelativejointpositions determinedby theCybergloveandthe12jointsof the Robonaut hand. Thismapping must result in the Robonaut hand tracking the operator's hand as well aspossible. While some joints are directly mapped, others required heuristic algorithmsto fuse data from several glove sensors to produce a hand joint position command.In conjunction with an auto mated glove calibration program, a satisfactory mappingis experimentally obtainable.

Figure12:ExamplesoftheRobonaut Hand

Using these custom mappings, operators are

using dexterousgraspsforfinetoolmaipulationTofacilitatetestingofthehandbaselevelpadsasshown infigures11,12werefabricatedfromDow Cornings Silastic®E. Thepadsprovideanonslipcompliant surfacenecessary forpositivelygraspinganobject.Thesepadswillserveasthefoundationfortactilesensorsandbe coveredwithaprotectiveglove.Futureplansincludethedevelopment of agraspcriteriameasureforthestabilityofthehandgrasp.Thesecriteriawillbeusedtoassisttheoperatorindeterminingif agrasp isacceptable.Sincethebaselineoperationplandoesnot involveforcefeedbacktotheoperator,visualfeedback onlymaybeinsufficient toproperlydetermineif agraspisstable.Usingsomeknowledgeof theobjectwhichisbeinggraspedinconjunctionwiththeexistingleadscrew forcesensorsandasmallsetofadditional tactilesensors installedonthefingersandpalm,thecontrolsystemwilldeterminetheacceptabilityof thegraspandindicatethat measuretotheoperator.Theoperatorcanthendecide howbestousethisdatainreconfiguringthegrasptoa morestableconfiguration.Thisgraspcriteriameasurecouldevolveintoanimportantpartof anautonomous graspingsystem. 6 Conclusions TheRobonaut Hand is presented. This highly anthropomorphic human scale hand builtat the NASA Johnson Space Center is designed to interface with EVA crewinterfaces thereby increasing the number of robotically compatible operationsavailable to the International Space Station. Several novel mechanisms aredescribed that allow the Robonaut hand to achieve capabilities approaching thatof an astronaut wearing a pressurized space suited glove. The initial jointbased control strategy is discussed and example tool manipulations areillustrated. References 1. Lovchik, C. S., Difiler, M. A., Compact DexterousRobotic Hand. Patent Pending. 2. Salisbury, J. K., & Mason, M. T., RobotHands and the Mechanics of Manipulation. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 1985. 3.Jacobsen, S., et al., Design of the Utah/M.I.T. Dextrous Hand. Proceedings ofthe IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, San Francisco, CA,1520-1532, 1986. 4. Bekey, G., Tomovic, R., Zeljkovic, I., Control Architecturefor the Belgrade/USC Hand. Dexterous Robot Hands, 136-149, Springer-Verlag, NewYork, 1990. 5. Maeda, Y., Susumu, T., Fujikawa, A., Development of anAnthropomorphic Hand (Mark-l). Proceedings of the 20 th International Symposiumon Industrial Robots, Tokyo, Japan, 53-544, 1989.

  1. Ali, M., Puffer, R.,Roman, H., Evaluation of a Multifingered Robot Hand for Nuclear Power PlantOperations and Maintenance Tasks. Proceedings of the 5 th World Conference onRobotics Research, Cambridge, MA, MS94-217, 1994. 7. Hartsfield, J., SmartHands: Flesh is Inspiration for Next Generation of Mechanical Appendages. SpaceNews Roundup, NASA Johnson Space Center, 27(35), page 3, Houston, TX, 1988. 8.Carter, E. Monford, G., Dexterous End Effector Flight Demonstration,Proceedings of the Seventh Annual Workshop on Space Operations Applications andResearch, Houston, TX, 95-102, 1993. 9. Nagatomo, M. et al, On the Results ofthe MFD Flight Operations, Press Release, National Space Development Agency ofJapan, August, 1997. 10. Stieber, M., Trudel, C., Hunter, D., Robotic systemsfor the International Space Station, Proceedings of the IEEE InternationalConference on Robotics and Automation, Albuquerque, New Mexico, 3068-3073,1997. 11. Hirzinger, G., Brunner, B., Dietrich, J., Heindl, J., Sensor BasedSpace Robotics - ROTEX and its Telerobotic Features, IEEE Transactions onRobotics and Automation, 9(5), 649-663, 1993. 12. Akin, D., Cohen, R., Developmentof an Interchangeable End Effector Mechanism for the Ranger TeleroboticVehicle., Proceedings of the 28 th Aerospace Mechanism Symposium, Cleveland OH,79-89, 1994 13. Jau, B., Dexterous Tele-manipulation with Four Fingered HandSystem. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics andAutomation,. Nagoya, Japan, 338-343, 1995. 14. Butterfass, J., Hirzinger, G.,Knoch, S. Liu, H., DLR's Multi-sensory Articulated Hand Part I: HardandSoftware Architecture. Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference onRobotics and Automation, Leuven Belgium, 2081-2086, 1998. 15. ExtravehicularActivity (EVA) Hardware Generic Design Requirements Document, JSC 26626,NASA/Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, July,
    1. Shimoga, K.B., RobotGrasp Synthesis: A Survey, International Journal of Robotics Research, vol. 15,no. 3, pp. 230-266, 1996. 17. Mirza, K. and Orin, D., General Formulation forForce Distribution in Power Grasp, Proceedings of the IEEE InternationalConference on Robotics and Automation, p.880-887, 1994. 18. Li, L., Cox, B.,Diftler, M., Shelton, S. , Rogers, B., Development of a Telepresence ControlledAmbidextrous Robot for Space Applications. Proceedings of the IEEEInternational Conference on Robotics and Automation, Minneapolis, MN, 58-63,1996. 19. Li, L., Taylor, E., EWS Robonaut: Work in Progress, Proceedings ofthe International Symposium on Artificial Intelligence, Robotics and Automationin

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